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Let us examine each in turn. Content Writing a short rationale means that the focus in this chapter is on the general characteristics of doctoral writing. In later sections, we will examine the specific content requirements of some important deliverables in your doctoral program, such as major papers and the dissertation.
Reflect Higher-Order Thinking First and foremost, your doctoral writing must reflect the higher-order thinking skills of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Book report style, descriptive writing that demonstrates lower-order thinking skills, such as knowledge, comprehension, and application, is not acceptable.
In short, your writing must demonstrate your ability to read and analyze the ideas of other scholars, evaluate them, synthesize or integrate them into a meaningful whole, if necessary, and use them in support of your own arguments.
By balanced I mean that you must present both sides of an argument, not just your point of view. While this is not a bad thing, it is also not a scientific or scholarly perspective. Scholars know that such one-sided presentations are inherently biased. At the doctoral level, you must strive to present evidence for both sides of any position, and to demonstrate, by means of the work of other scholars and your own arguments, why your position is the stronger one.
Note the tentative nature of this last statement. In doctoral writing, you must reflect your basic understanding of the nature of scientific enquiry, that truth is subjective and, therefore, tentative.
Early in our education, we learn about the nature of proof by experimentation, which is the hallmark of scientific investigation in the natural sciences. An object falls to earth when dropped, thus proving the existence of gravity.
A chemical added to a liquid causes it to solidify, thus proving the validity of a chemical formula. It all sounds so objective and final. As a doctoral student, you learn that proof is a much more tentative thing. For example, some people believe that the best leaders are take charge types who give orders and expect people to follow them.
The correct answer is that it depends on the circumstances.
If I were in a fire fight, I would want my lieutenant to take charge. But back in the office, I would prefer a manager with a more democratic style. In short, one of the things that distinguish the writing of a student from a scholar is that a student knows he or she is right while a scholar knows he or she might be wrong.
Doctoral writers use evidence from the literature, not rhetoric, to support their contentions. Shouting louder, debating better, or otherwise hammering home the courage of your convictions is unacceptable in doctoral communication. Objective evidence, as opposed to subjective opinion, is the coin of the realm in doctoral work.
Do you have real, preferably hard, data from scientifically conducted research that backs up your arguments? Accuracy and objectivity are closely related. In that regard, it is your responsibility to present the ideas of others from the literature as faithfully as you can, based on your own critical reading of their work.This infographic shows text on the left reading “5% of middle school students with disabilities are scoring proficient in writing (NCES, )” next to a student drawn in silhouette.
Clojure is a dynamic language. Among other things this means that type annotations are not required for code to run. While Clojure has some support for type hints, they are not an enforcement mechanism, nor comprehensive, and are limited to communicating information to the compiler to .
Information about writing learning objectives - what you need to understand and be able to do. Scholarly Writing is an article about an important skill that doctoral students must master.
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