What are mills four main arguments in defence of freedom of speech essay

Firstly, he says, we cannot be sure whether an opinion is true or false. So if we stifle an opinion we believe to be false, we may inadvertently be stifling a true one. Mill does not really argue for the value of permitting true opinions; he takes it as self-evident that true opinions are always to be allowed simply because we desire to know what is true. However, this may not be as uncontroversial as Mill believes.

What are mills four main arguments in defence of freedom of speech essay

Boundaries of the Debate The topic of free speech is one of the most contentious issues in liberal societies. If liberty of expression is not highly valued, as has often been the case, there is no problem; freedom of expression is simply curtailed in favor of other values.

What are mills four main arguments in defence of freedom of speech essay

It becomes a volatile issue when it is highly valued because only then do the limitations placed upon it become controversial. The first thing to note in any sensible discussion of freedom of speech is that it will have to be limited. Every society places some limits on the exercise of speech because it always takes place within a context of competing values.

In this sense, Stanley Fish is correct when he says that there is no such thing as free speech in the sense of unlimited speech. Free speech is simply a useful term to focus our attention on a particular form of human interaction and the phrase is not meant to suggest that speech should never be limited.

Haworth makes a similar point when he suggests that a right to freedom of speech is not something we have, not something we own, in the same way as we possess arms and legs.

Mill’s Naturalism

Alexander and Horton agree. One reason for thinking that speech is not special simpiciter is that some of these forms of communication are more important than others and hence require different levels of protection.

For example, the freedom to criticize a government is generally thought to be more important than the freedom of an artist to offend her audience.

If two speech acts clash when yelling prevents a political speech a decision has to be made to prioritize one over the other, which means that there can be no unlimited right to free speech.

For example, Alexander and Horton claim that arguments defending speech on democratic grounds have many parts. One is a claim that the public needs a great deal of information in order to make informed decisions.

Another is that because government is the servant of the people, it should not be allowed to censor them. Such arguments show that one of the main reasons for justifying free speech political speech is important, not for its own sake but because it allows us to exercise another important value democracy.

Whatever reasons we offer to protect speech can also be used to show why some speech is not special. If speech is defended because it promotes autonomy, we no longer have grounds for protecting speech acts that undermine this value.

If our defence of speech is that it is crucial to a well-functioning democracy, we have no reason to defend speech that is irrelevant to, or undermines, this goal. And if we agree with John Stuart Mill that speech should be protected because it leads to the truth, there seems no reason to protect the speech of anti-vaccers or creationists.

On Liberty - Wikipedia

Speech is important because we are socially situated and it makes little sense to say that Robinson Crusoe has a right to free speech. It only becomes necessary to talk of such a right within a social setting, and appeals to an abstract and absolute right to free speech hinder rather than help the debate.

At a minimum, speech will have to be limited for the sake of order. If we all speak at once, we end up with an incoherent noise. Without some rules and procedures we cannot have a conversation at all and consequently speech has to be limited by protocols of basic civility.

It is true that many human rights documents give a prominent place to the right to speech and conscience, but such documents also place limits on what can be said because of the harm and offense that unlimited speech can cause, I will discuss this in more detail later.

Outside of the United States of America speech does not tend to have a specially protected status and it has to compete with other rights claims for our allegiance. John Stuart Mill, one of the great defenders of free speech, summarized these points in On Liberty, where he suggests that a struggle always takes place between the competing demands of authority and liberty.

He claimed that we cannot have the latter without the former: All that makes existence valuable to anyone depends on the enforcement of restraints upon the actions of other people. Some rules of conduct, therefore, must be imposed—by law in the first place, and by opinion on many things which are not fit subjects for the operation of law.

Instead, we need to decide how much value we place on speech in relation to other important ideals such as privacy, security, democratic equality and the prevention of harm and there is nothing inherent to speech that suggests it must always win out in competition with these values.

Speech is part of a package deal of social goods: In this essay, I will examine some conceptions of the good that are deemed to be acceptable limitations on speech.

I will start with the harm principle and then move on to other more encompassing arguments for limiting speech. The assumption is that the instant case is acceptable; otherwise it would be critiqued in its own right.

The complaint is that a change from the status quo to the instant case will lead to unwanted future limitations on speech and should be avoided even if a change to the instant case would be immediately desirable.

Chapter 2, Of the Liberty of Thought and Discussion (Part 2)

The slippery slope argument has to make a clear distinction between the instant and the danger case. If the former was part of the latter then it is not a slippery slope argument but simply an assertion about the unwarranted breadth of the instant case.

The claim being made is that a change to an acceptable instant case that is distinct from the danger case should nevertheless be prohibited because a change from the status quo to the instant case will necessarily transport us to the danger case.

As Schuer says this is not very compelling because it needs to be demonstrated, rather than merely stated, that the move from the status quo is so much more likely to lead to the danger case.JS Mill's arguments on the importance of free speech JS Mill's arguments on the importance of free speech Mill was a strong believer of freedom of speech; he had four arguments as to why free speech is an important element of society.

Here is how he sums up his argument at the end of the chapter, with links to the posts where I give his more detailed arguments: We have now recognised the necessity to the mental well-being of mankind (on which all their other well-being depends) of freedom of opinion, and freedom of the expression of opinion, on four distinct grounds; which.

Essay On Freedom Of Speech. Is it possible to imagine a civil democratic society without freedom of speech? The right to express any thought in any manner is of great importance to the democratic society. Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present; People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account; This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation; A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation; Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article.

John Stuart Mill couldn’t do hypertext, but I can do it for him. John gave the second chapter of On Liberty the title "Of the Liberty of Thought and Discussion.“ Here is how he sums up his argument at the end of the chapter, with links to the posts where I give his more detailed arguments: We.

Prohibiting freedom of speech on these grounds is very questionable for liberals in all but extreme cases (it was not persuasive in the Skokie case) because it is very rare that speech would produce such a clear danger to the individual.

Mill’s On Liberty at Its Legacy for Freedom of Speech & Expression