References and Further Reading 1. Metaethics The term "meta" means after or beyond, and, consequently, the notion of metaethics involves a removed, or bird's eye view of the entire project of ethics. We may define metaethics as the study of the origin and meaning of ethical concepts. When compared to normative ethics and applied ethics, the field of metaethics is the least precisely defined area of moral philosophy.
What exactly do we mean by values and ethics? Both are extremely broad terms, and we need to focus in on the aspects most relevant for strategic leaders and decision makers. What we will first discuss is the distinctive nature of ethics for public officials; second, the forces which influence the ethical behavior of individuals in organizations; and third, explore the actions strategic leaders can take to build ethical climates in their organizations.
That someone can be an individual or, collectively, an organization. One place where values are important is in relation to vision. One of the imperatives for organizational vision is that it must be based on and consistent with the organization's core values.
In one example of a vision statement we'll look at later, the organization's core values - in this case, integrity, professionalism, caring, teamwork, and stewardship- were deemed important enough to be included with the statement of the organization's vision. John Johns, in an article entitled "The Ethical Dimensions of National Security," mentions honesty and loyalty as values that are the ingredients of integrity.
When values are shared by all members of an organization, they are extraordinarily important tools for making judgments, assessing probable outcomes of contemplated actions, and choosing among alternatives.
Perhaps more important, they put all members "on the same sheet of music" with regard to what all members as a body consider important. The Army, inhad as the theme for the year "values," and listed four organizational values-loyalty, duty, selfless service, and integrity-and four individual values- commitment, competence, candor, and courage.
A Department of the Army pamphlet entitled Values: The Bedrock of Our Profession spent some time talking about the importance of values, and included this definition: Values are what we, as a profession, judge to be right. They are more than words-they are the moral, ethical, and professional attributes of character.
Army-civilian and uniformed soldier alike.
These are not the only values that should determine our character, but they are ones that are central to our profession and should guide our lives as we serve our Nation. Values are the embodiment of what an organization stands for, and should be the basis for the behavior of its members.
However, what if members of the organization do not share and have not internalized the organization's values? Obviously, a disconnect between individual and organizational values will be dysfunctional.
Additionally, an organization may publish one set of values, perhaps in an effort to push forward a positive image, while the values that really guide organizational behavior are very different. When there is a disconnect between stated and operating values, it may be difficult to determine what is "acceptable.
One might infer that officers are encouraged to "have the courage of their convictions" and speak their disagreements openly.
In some cases, this does work; in others it does not. The same thing works at the level of the society. The principles by which the society functions do not necessarily conform to the principles stated.Swami Sivananda explains the importance of celibacy for spiritual practice.
Conformance to a recognized code, doctrine, or system of rules of what is right or wrong and to behave accordingly. No system of morality is accepted as universal, and the answers to the question "What is morality?" differ sharply from place to place, group to group, and time to time.
For some it means conscious and deliberate effort in guiding one's conduct by reason based on fairness and. noun. relative worth, merit, or importance: the value of a college education; the value of a queen in chess.
monetary or material worth, as in commerce or trade: This piece of land has greatly increased in value. the worth of something in terms of the amount of other things for which it can be exchanged or in terms of some medium of exchange. Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concern matters of value, and thus comprise the branch of philosophy called axiology.. Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong. Business Ethics (reader definition) The human concern for all other humans who participate in the production on which the whole company lives and in which it has its being. Business ethics are important because they help to develop customer and employee loyalty and engagement and contribute overall to a company's viability. Businesses rely on reputation and a lack of moral guidelines can ruin a reputation. Ethical behavior involves using an overall set of corporate.
It may, initially, be identified as the one that emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to the approach that emphasizes duties or rules (deontology) or that emphasizes the consequences of actions (consequentialism).
Applied Ethics. Under what conditions is an abortion morally permissible? Does a citizen have a moral obligation to actively participate (perhaps by voting) in the democratic process of one’s nation (assuming one is living in a democracy)?
Business Ethics (reader definition) The human concern for all other humans who participate in the production on which the whole company lives and in which it has its being.