Western political philosophy to the end of the 19th century Antiquity Although in antiquity great civilizations arose in Egypt and Mesopotamia, in the Indus Valley, and in Chinathere was little speculation about the problems of political philosophy as formulated in the West.
References and Further Reading 1. Kinds of Knowledge We talk of knowledge: But what is knowledge? We can best answer that potentially complex question in several stages.
Let us begin by considering whether there are different kinds of knowledge. Epistemologists have contemplated at least the following general possibilities. Knowing by Acquaintance Your knowing a person, it seems, involves direct interaction with him or her.
Otherwise, at most, you should claim only that it is almost as if you know him or her: Nonetheless, could you know facts about a person without ever meeting him or her? If so, there could well be a kind of knowledge which is different to knowing a fact; maybe knowing a thing or entity such as a person is distinct from knowing a fact about that thing or entity.
Bertrand Russell : With these, we can designate individuals with whom we have not interacted. Then we can formulate claims using such descriptions. Some of these claims could be knowledge. Thus, we may open up for ourselves a world of knowledge beyond what is revealed by our immediate experiences.
Knowledge-That Most philosophical discussion of knowledge is directed at knowledge-that — such as knowledge that kangaroos hop, knowledge that koalas sleep most of the time, knowledge that kookaburras cackle, and the like. Knowledge by description mentioned in section 1. In principle, knowledge-that is the kind of knowledge present whenever there is knowledge of a fact or truth — no matter what type of fact or truth is involved: It will therefore be the intended sense throughout most of this article.
Knowledge-Wh But should knowledge-that receive such sustained and uninterrupted focus by philosophers? Here are some of them collectively referred to as knowledge-wh: How should these be understood? The usual view among epistemologists is that these are specific sorts of knowledge-that.
For example, knowing whether it is 2 p. Knowing who is due to visit is knowing, for some specified person, that it is he or she who is due to visit.
Knowing what the visit is meant to accomplish is knowing, for some specified outcome, that it is what the visit is meant to accomplish. Knowing how that outcome is best accomplished is knowing, for some specified description of how that outcome could be accomplished, that this describes the best way of accomplishing that outcome.
Still, not everyone will assess these examples in quite that way. Note a variation on this theme that is currently being developed.
Called contrastivism, its basic idea is that perhaps always; at least sometimes to know is to know this rather than that. For different versions, see Schaffer ; ; Morton Consider the example of knowing-who. On contrastivism, you could know that it is Fred rather than Arjuna and Diego who is due to visit; and this might be the only way in which you know that Fred is due.
Your knowing-who would be your knowing that it is Fred as against Arjuna or Diego who is due to visit. This remains propositional knowledge, nonetheless. Knowing-How Gilbert Ryle ; made apparent to other philosophers the potential importance of distinguishing knowledge-that from knowledge-how.
These seem to be skills or at least abilities. Are they not simply another form of knowledge-that? If Ryle was right, knowing-how is somehow distinct: Might knowledge-that even be a kind of knowledge-how itself, so that all instances of knowledge-that themselves are skills or abilities for example, Hetherington a:Comments: Comment by Bob, 08 Jan, I read a funny news article on the BBC web page this morning.
In Brazil an old lady, a devout Catholic, had been . Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty. Another way of defining belief sees it as a mental representation of an attitude positively oriented towards the likelihood of something being true.
In the context of Ancient Greek thought, two related concepts. Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art and is normally considered to be a distinguishing.
Philosophy is the systematic study of the foundations of human knowledge with an emphasis on the conditions of its validity and finding answers to ultimate questions.
While every other science aims at investigating a specific area of knowledge, such as physics or psychology, philosophy has been defined as “thinking about thinking.”At the same time, as expressed by its Greek etymology. It is a good broad survey.
Basic elements of logic are handled well.
But PhD Johnson fell apart on the philosophy of religion. It is pretty amusing that the author of Incoherence of the Philosophers provided the best foundation for the 'Kalam' argument.
Comments: Comment by Bob, 08 Jan, I read a funny news article on the BBC web page this morning. In Brazil an old lady, a devout Catholic, had been .