Etymology[ edit ] In the 1st century, the use of the Latin word plagiarius literally "kidnapper" to denote stealing someone else's work was pioneered by the Roman poet Martialwho complained that another poet had "kidnapped his verses". Plagiary, a derivative of plagiarus, was introduced into English in by dramatist Ben Jonson during the Jacobean Era to describe someone guilty of literary theft. Legal aspects[ edit ] Although plagiarism in some contexts is considered theft or stealing, the concept does not exist in a legal sense, although the use of someone else's work in order to gain academic credit may meet some legal definitions of fraud. While both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different concepts, and false claims of authorship generally constitute plagiarism regardless of whether the material is protected by copyright.
Normally, when writing an essay at university Electronic sources internet essay will be expected to use only academic sources. The following learning guide on source credibility will help you to determine whether an external source is academic or not.
The chocolate essay uses the APA style of referencing, which is easy to distinguish from the Harvard Author-Date System, as the format is different: In that case the information comes before the author.
Such citations are called information-centred citations. When the focus is more on who is saying it then the citation is written like this: Such citations are called author-centred citations.
Try and achieve a balance between both types of in text-references in your essay writing. Reference list In the APA style of referencing, the reference list has certain conventions that you must also follow.
Here are some examples from the chocolate essay: Include your in-text citations and reference list as part of your first draft.
Redrafting your essay Leave yourself enough time to look at your essay more than once. For a word essay you need at least three days to redraft your essay. Always save each draft as a separate file; then you can see how your essay develops and improves.
Here are the sorts of questions you should ask yourself: You can also look at other checklists such as this one on editing your own work. Now compare the above with the final draft: Since Spanish explorers brought back chocolate from the new world, chocolate consumption has become a worldwide phenomenon.
At first, chocolate, a derivative of the cacao bean, was consumed as a drink, only later achieving mass popularity in tablet or bar form. The realities of chocolate are more down to earth; a number of these realities will be addressed in this essay. Chocolate has chemical properties that can influence mood and there is possible evidence for some positive impacts of chocolate on cardiovascular health.
Yet, such positive attributes are counterbalanced somewhat by the argument that, in some instances, chocolate can be viewed as a drug rather than a food.
Moreover, there is the possibility of some correlation between over-consumption of chocolate and obesity. Take your time and be careful when redrafting—it will be worth it! How do you write in an academic way? Imagine your essay as a kind of story.
You are the principal storyteller, the internal voice of the writer, leading the reader through to your conclusion.
During the story, there are different voices that appear from time to time. These are the external voices citations that add substance to your story, providing detail and support for what you are saying and sometimes even giving an alternative perspective.
The external voices can be divided into two categories in your essay: The reader needs to know at all times whose voice they are hearing.
Is it your internal voice or the external voice of other authors? You might wonder how you can include your own voice and still sound academic when you are writing about a subject area in which you have little or no knowledge.
The internal voice of the writer is colour-coded in yellow; the indirect external voices of other authors i. This is a balanced paragraph. The writer sets the scene at the beginning of the topic sentence and also links together all of the sentences, using their own voice to lead into content which is provided by the external voices.
That is something your lecturers do not want to see. When you are drafting your paragraphs, use a colour-coding system like the one used here.
It will help you ensure your academic voice is clear! When you get more confident in using external sources, you will gradually expand the language of your critical internal voice.
The Phrasebank website at Manchester University provides examples of some more expressions to use when assessing external sources.REFERENCE TECHNIQUES: Tips for the use of electronic sources HARVARD method and APA style In-text reference where the author of the source is known.
Let us write you a custom nursing essay! Years of experience and glowing feedback mean you can entrust us your papers. The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
E-democracy (a combination of the words electronic and democracy), also known as digital democracy or Internet democracy, incorporates 21st-century information and communications technology to promote timberdesignmag.com is a form of government in which all adult citizens are presumed to be eligible to participate equally in the proposal, development, and creation of laws.
The Sources page at timberdesignmag.com offers links and source material written by and pertaining to William Edward Burghardt Du Bois, the African American activist, writer, and scholar.
The research is conducted by Dr. Robert Williams. Electronic Literature: What is it? v January 2, By N. Katherine Hayles. N.
Katherine Hayles (UCLA). Contents. Abstract; Preface; 1 A Context For Electronic Literature.