Eating pica essay

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Eating pica essay

Now, in doing this Hone endorses the new techniques of "cladistic analysis" [p.

Eating pica essay

And, of course, it would be nice to see the traditional ranks, originally with no more than subjective motivations, brought up to date with more rigorous definitions, as in percentages of common DNA or in terms of time lapsed since a common ancestor as in the diagram below.

But completely erasing the traditional ranks has a taste both of nihilism and of the kind of arrogance that summarily tossed out Brontosaurus from the taxonomy -- a sin that is all too evident in Hone himself, who refers to "famous names such as Diplodocus, Stegosaurus, Allosaurus, and Apatosaurus " [pp.

Late in his book, Hone does work Brontosaurus into a list of Sauropods, without comment, perhaps because he has become aware that the name has returned to the favored graces of paleontology.

If cladistic diagrams can be developed with some rigor, this is an excellent development. Biologists, however, are unlikely to recall that the result, with binary divisions, looks like one of the oldest techniques in logic, the Porphyrian Tree, whose conception really goes back to Plato but is named after the Neoplatonist Porphyrywho described it in his Isagoge, the "Introduction" to Aristotle's Organon of logical works.

It is in Porphyry that the nomenclature of "genus and species," which goes back to Aristotle and which Hone admits is still used in biology, is formally established. And for Porphyry, all the levels of generality generalitas above species pl.

The first genus, however, is the "promixate" genus, while all the others are "remote" genera [cf. Basic Logic, Raymond J. So the cladistic diagrams Eating pica essay see now are simply ranks of remote genera, and the remaining taxonomic rank of "Genus" is the proximate genus.

In these terms, the traditional ranks of "Kingdom," etc. If Hone can refer to the Ornithischian and Saurischian dinosaurs as "clades" rather than "Orders" [p. But he also continues to use the forms of traditional Eating pica essay, like "Tryannosauridae," without telling us that the "-idae" suffix, from the Greek patronymicwas always used distinctively for the names of biological Families.

Obscuring these principles is not helpful. A name like "Tyrannosauridae" pins the system to a reference point. How many divisions we then need below the Family level depends on the situation.

This is where cladistic analysis will help; but with our reference points at Family and Genus, we can fill in as many levels as we need, with reasonable terminology.

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This sort of thing is evident at several points on this page. The confusion that can result from Hone's approach is evident in his own list of the Genera and species of the Tyrannosauroidea [p.

All the "clades" are lumped together by Hone in the same column, with the elimination of the Family "Tyrannosauridae" as, evidently, redundant. What this means is that we cannot use Hone's own table to construct the relationships that we see in Hone's own earlier diagram of the Tyrannosauroidea [p.

This is not helpful, and it demonstrates the usefulness of the traditional ranks.

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They do provide an orientation, and ideally they enable us go back and forth between a cladistic diagram and the taxonomic names. Thus, I will continue wtih the traditional ranks, however subjective the assignments must sometimes be.

David Hone unintentionally demonstrates the drawbacks of giving them up.


However, I now see a use of "clade" that is new and helpful. At Wikipedia there is often inserted a "clade" assignment into traditional classifications to indicate descent were this would otherwise not be shown without a diagram.

Thus, Mammals are under the "clade" of Synapsidamammal-like reptiles, because that looks like the point of derivation for Mammals. Otherwise, it is awkward to indicate this since Mammalia is its own Class, while Synapsida is a Subclass of the Class Reptilia.

In these terms, we would want to insert a "clade" for Dinosaurs under Infraclass Archosauriasince that is actually where Dinosaurs used to be and it does indicate the probable point of their descent. This is a very useful and innovative use of the "clade" concept.

So lets see what this looks like for human beings.

Porphyry would be proud: The classification for these birds is based on another article in Scientific American, which distinguished between the Corvida and the Passerida. The most interesting feature was that the Corvida, ultimately including crows Genus Corvusevolved in Australia and, unlike other native Australian life forms, was able to then spread around the world.

The use of the "parvorder" and "tribe" levels also went along with an estimation, which is given in the table above, of the time elapsed since separation of the genealogy at that level. With genetic analysis of DNA, this is now a promising means of determining relationships between all life forms and the age of various divisions.

If the purpose of the introduction of parvorder and tribe was to allow a steady gradient in time among the level of classification, then perhaps living genera separate at million years ago, and species at up to 10 million years ago. It is independently estimated that a species lasts about 5 million years, so that is in the right order of magnitude.

Speaking of the birds, Aves is given here as a Subclass rather than a Class as traditional, based on the idea that birds are dinosaurs, and that dinosaurs should no longer be classified as reptiles.

The traditional view of the classification is shown at left, where Dinosauria would be no more than a Superorder, over the two or three Orders of dinosaurs, with the derivation of birds subject to agnosticism but generally thought not to be from the dinosaurs.

Desmond [Warner Books,], one of the first books I saw with extensive discussion and argument for the warm blooded nature of dinosaurs and Thecondontswhich here are still left with the reptiles. This idea for the reclassification is shown at 0 0 1 Two Rooms Limited 10 2 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ timberdesignmag.commalTable {mso-style .

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