The Yoruba developed kingship political system around BC. This article elucidates the significant features of Yoruba traditional political culture and socialization, which depends enormously on political symbols and language for the legitimisation of political domination. Moreover, the article presents the family, as the traditional basic unit of indigenous political administration, with chiefs representing the interest of respective families in central administration. This afforded the provision of checks and balances on the Oba Kingas he could not run contrary to the expectation of his subjects without grave consequences.
Early Nigerian cultures The Nok culture Evidence of human occupation in Nigeria dates back thousands of years.
The oldest fossil remains found by archaeologists in the southwestern area of Iwo Eleru, near Akurehave been dated to about bce. There are isolated collections of ancient tools and artifacts of different periods of the Stone Agebut the oldest recognizable evidence of an organized society belongs to the Nok culture c.
Named for the village of Nok, site of some of the finds, the ancient culture produced fine terra-cotta figurines, which were accidentally discovered by tin miners on the Jos Plateau in the s. Its people raised crops and cattle and seem to have paid particular attention to personal adornment, especially of the hair.
Distinctive features of Nok art include naturalism, stylized treatment of the mouth and eyes, relative proportions of the human head, body, and feet, distortions of the human facial features, and treatment of animal forms.
The spread of Nok-type figures in a wide area south of the Jos Plateaucovering southern Kaduna state southeastward to Katsina Ala, south of the Benue Riversuggests a well-established culture that left traces still identifiable in the lives of the peoples of the area today.
Many of the distinctive features of Nok art can also be traced in later developments of Nigerian art produced in such places as Igbo Ukwu, IfeEsie, and Benin City. Pottery head found at Nok, Nigeria. In the Jos Museum, Nigeria. See also African art. They reveal not only a high artistic tradition but also a well-structured society with wide-ranging economic relationships.
Of particular interest is the source of the copper and lead used to make the bronzes, which may have been Tadmekka in the Sahara, and of the coloured glass beads, some of which may have come from Venice and Indiathe latter via trade routes through An introduction to the history of nigeria the struggle of the yoruba, the Nile valley, and the Chad basin.
It is believed that the bronzes were part of the furniture in the burial chamber of a high personage, possibly a forerunner of the eze nri, a priest-king, who held religious but not political power over large parts of the Igbo -inhabited region well into the 20th century.
Kingdoms and empires of precolonial Nigeria Many indigenous polities emerged in Nigeria before the British took control in the late 19th century. Smaller kingdoms included those of the IgalaNupeand Ebira.
The lake was then much larger than the present-day body of water, and its basin attracted settlements and encouraged exchange. A pastoral group, ancestors of the Kanuriestablished a centralized state over those referred to collectively as the Sao.
Initially, trading links extended to the Nile valley of Egypt. There is some evidence that Kanem had made contact with the Christian kingdoms of Nubia before it was overrun by Muslims, who gained a foothold in the ruling family of Kanem in the 11th century.
From Kanem the rulers tried to dominate the areas south and west of the lake as well. By the 12th century they had been compelled by attacks from the Sao to move their capital to the region west of Lake Chad, and they gradually lost control of most of the original Kanem.
For a long time, Borno was the dominant power in the central Sudanincluding much of Hausaland. The Bayajidda legendconcerning a mythical Middle Eastern ancestor of the Hausa, seems to suggest that the rise of a centralized political system in Hausaland was influenced from Borno.
Though the rulers of Borno embraced Islamthe structure of the monarchy remained traditional, with the queen mother and other female officials exercising considerable power. The selection of the monarch, the coronation rites, and other bases of royal authority were dictated by pre-Islamic beliefs.
The princes and other members of the royal family were granted fiefs and posted away from the capital to govern frontier zones, while people of slave origin were preferred for the royal guard and palace officials.
Hausaland For centuries the Hausa have occupied the northern plains beyond the Jos Plateau, which were a crossroads open not only to Borno but also to the states of Mali and Songhai in the western Sudan, the trans-Saharan routes to northern Africa, and various trade routes to the forest areas of BorguOyo, and Benin.
Perhaps because of this strategic location, the Hausa developed a number of centralized states—such as DauraKatsina, Kano, Zaria, Gobir, and, later, Kebbi—each with a walled city, a market centre, and a monarchical system of government.
Islam, which was introduced from the Mali empire in the 14th century, strengthened both the monarchical system and the commercial contacts, but it remained predominantly an urban religion until the beginning of the 19th century. Even within the walled cities, however, some pre-Islamic rites remained part of the ceremonies that sustained monarchical authority.
A considerable rivalry existed between the different states over agricultural land and the control of trade and trade routes, and Hausaland was periodically conquered by powerful neighbours such as Borno and Songhai.
Yorubaland and Benin Ife, which flourished between the 11th and 15th centuries, emerged as a major power in the forested areas west of the Niger and south of Hausaland. Some of the characteristic features of Yoruba culture emerged during that time: Ife is best known for its potsherd pavements and for the great artistry of its terra-cottas and bronzes, especially the naturalism of many of its bronze figures.
Oyofounded in the 14th century and located in the savanna to the north of the forest, gradually supplanted the older kingdom of Ife. After more than a century of struggle with nearby Borgu and Nupe, it established itself strategically as the emporium for exchanging goods from the north—rock salt, copper, textiles, leather goods, and horses—with products from the south—kola nuts, indigo, parrots, and cowries.
By the 17th century it had built up a cavalry force with which it dominated people in western Yorubaland and in the dry gap to the coast; to the south, infestations of tsetse flies prevented kingdoms there from effectively utilizing horses.
When the Portuguese arrived in the kingdom of Benin in the 15th century, they found a monarchy, dating back many centuries, with a complex structure of chiefs and palace officials presiding over a kingdom that was expanding in all directions.
In time, Benin dominated not only the Edo-speaking peoples to the north and south but also the area eastward to the Niger and, along the coast, to Lagos which the Edo now claim to have founded and even into present-day Ghana.
It also exerted considerable influence on eastern Yorubaland and maintained trading connections with Oyo. Benin art, which began to flourish in the 15th century, was characterized by naturalistic bronze sculptures and bronze door panels that covered the outside of the royal palace. Portuguese explorer or traderPlaque depicting a Portuguese explorer or trader, from Nigeria, 16th or 17th century; in the Brooklyn Museum, New York.
Photograph by CJ Nye.The premiere of Alagbara Series will remain indelible in the annals of history in the production of Yoruba Television series for the people of the South West, Nigeria and other Yoruba speakers across Africa where StarTimes digital pay TV beams.
Nigeria now becomes one of the wealthiest countries in Africa thanks to its large reserves of oil (petroleum now, rather than the palm oil of the previous century).
In the mids the output is more than two million barrels a day, the value of which is boosted by . INTRODUCTION The Yoruba religion is the religious belief and practice of the Yoruba people both in Africa (chiefly in Nigeria and Benin Republic), and in the Americas.
It has influenced and given birth to several Afro-American religions such as Santeria in Cuba and Candomble in Brazil. The history of Nigeria can be traced to prehistoric settlers (Nigerians) living in the area as early as BC. Numerous ancient African civilizations settled in the region that is today Nigeria, such as the Kingdom of Nri, the Benin Empire, and the Oyo Empire.
History of Nigeria.
Jump to navigation Jump to search. This History of the Yoruba people; Nigeria portal: In Kaduna in February–May over 1, people died in rioting over the introduction of criminal Shar'ia in the State.
Hundreds of ethnic Hausa were . Yoruba people are a large ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in Africa, and the majority of them speak the Yoruba language.
The Yoruba constitute approximately 35 percent of Nigeria’s total population, and around 40 million individuals throughout the region of West Africa.