Introduction As this entry describes, feminism is both an intellectual commitment and a political movement that seeks justice for women and the end of sexism in all forms. Motivated by the quest for social justice, feminist inquiry provides a wide range of perspectives on social, cultural, economic, and political phenomena. Yet despite many overall shared commitments, there are numerous differences among feminist philosophers regarding philosophical orientation whether, for example, Continental or analyticontological commitments such as the category of womanand what kind of political and moral remedies should be sought.
Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics as her challenge to the exclusionary politics of difference dominant in postmodernist theory and extending to her argument for a spatialized feminist subjectivity in her memoir Bone Black: Memories of Girlhood We can understand critical regionalism as a cultural movement that, critical of postmodern aesthetics, argues for the persistence of geographical history in contemporary thought.
We can read hooks as participating in this cultural logic precisely because she argues for a radical decentering of subjectivity away from patriarchy, racism, and classism and the formation of alternative coalitions on the basis of common local and regional social relations.
This means that hooks turns to critical regionalism and its theories and politics of spatial culture as a way to think through issues of race and gender oppression in the United States and the globalized world. And like Gayatri Spivak and Judith Butler, who in Who Sings the Nation-State argue for the importance of critical regionalisms in the deconstruction of nationalism by challenging the borders of national identity, hooks begins the twenty-first century by also making critical regionalism the starting point for thinking through feminist citizenship.
What this periodization suggests is the development of a collective project of a feminist critical regionalism that responds to cultural problems of postmodernism and to the social, political, and economic conditions of globalization and neoliberalism. There is a distinction in her praxis.
Especially for Spivak, critical regionalism is a solution that is neither national nor determined by the state: She instead frames critical regionalism in terms of political ecology and, in so doing, joins a feminist politics of place with an explicit project of environmentalism.
By the time hooks writes Belonging: A Culture of Placeher critical regionalism works within a complex dialectic of center and periphery, local and global that holds in tension multiple spatial levels—the home, the region, the nation, and the world—and their potential as sites of resistance—for anti-racist, feminist, and anti-globalization movements.
More to the point, hooks argues that through her critical return to the U. Thus, her critical regionalism simultaneously turns toward the problems of feminism, racism, materialism, domesticity, and ecology. Postmodernism and Materialist Feminism: But importantly these challenges to identity and subjectivity were also formed in relation to developing theories of spatiality.
With the growing explanatory power of terms like postmodernism, globalization, and neoliberalism, theories of identity and subjectivity were rewritten in relation to these spatial concepts as a way to comprehend the ways in which their various economic, technological, political, and cultural components constitute our global present.
It is in this context that we can read a turn in feminist theory to a spatial rhetoric of location, multipositionality, and migration Friedman The effects of globalization on feminist theorizing are numerous: Moreover, the very way in which we think about U.
But important to this feminist theorization of identity is the double emphasis on material systems that discursively construct subjects: This reading of feminist history puts in tension both radical feminist movements and academic feminism, making political connections between identity constructs and the spatial realities of geography, race, class, gender, and sexuality.
It is from this intersection that feminist critical regionalism offers an alternative map to neoliberal capitalism, one in which the local concerns of feminist politics are read in relation to global power relations.
Yearning is an instructive starting point for intervention in these debates because it serves two functions: The goal of combining these two critical projects is to develop a larger transformative politics, what hooks describes as a liberatory pedagogy of radical postmodernism 8.
Here, I must clarify my terms. I read hooks as less subscribing to postmodernist theory than working within the narrative category of postmodernism, which sees the emergence of a new cultural logic following the process of modernization being declared complete concurrent with the rise of multinational capitalism and neoliberalism.
This project requires some maneuvering. In the first place, hooks grapples with the political implications of the relationship between feminist theory and postmodern critiques of difference.
A central question for hooks is the potential for academic work to become a larger social praxis:hooks is particularly instructive for the way in which her scholarship responds to developments in the feminist movement occurring in the s and s: for example, oppositions between activist and academic feminisms, feminist theory and postmodernist theory, and feminist theory and globalization.
Sep 26, · In the first feminist article she dared sign with her own name, Such issues were addressed by black feminists including Michele Wallace, Mary Ann Weathers, bell hooks, Alice Walker, and Bettina Aptheker.
gender and the growth of feminist scholarship. Feminist geographers contended that geography was a male-dominated. Yale Journal of Law & Feminism Volume 4 Issue 1Yale Journal of Law & Feminism Article 2 Theory as Liberatory Practice Theory as Liberatory Practice bell hookst of reflection and analysis.
bell hooks Analysis Gloria Watkins. Homework Help She addresses the broader issues of feminism in Ain’t I a Woman: Angharad N. “Bell Hooks: Ethics from the Margins.”. Bell Hooks: Authoritative Expertise Bell hooks has an uncanny way of pushing the political buttons of her opposition and collogues by using her politically charged and aggressive approach to sensitive issues.
She attacks the old definitions of expertise and authority and suggests new ones. This article explores much of the body of bell hooks’s work. It analyzes her long trajectory from her opening salvo, Ain’tIaWoman, to her latest books and essays in a framework that.