Uganda RisingMindset Media, Colonialism, in the traditional sense, ended as European countries started fighting over themselves over the world the World Wars and in effect, weakened themselves in the process allowing the United States and Soviet Union to eventually gain in immense power. They would spend another 50 years continuing that fight.
Traditional political mapmakers, at least throughout the 20th century, have used blue to represent the modern-day Republicans, as well as the earlier Federalist Party.
This may have been a holdover from the Civil Warduring which the predominantly Republican north was considered "blue.
There was one historical use, associated with boss ruleof blue for Democrats and red for Republicans: InThe New York Times printed a special color map, using blue for Democrats and yellow for Republicans, to detail Theodore Roosevelt 's electoral victory.
One source claims that in the six elections prior to every Democrat but one had been coded red. It further claims that from to in an attempt to avoid favoritism in color-coding the broadcast networks standardized on the convention of alternating every four years between blue and red the color used for the incumbent party.
The map was placed in the network's election-night news studio. If Jimmy Carterthe Democratic candidate that year, won a state, it lit up in red whereas if Gerald Fordthe incumbent Republican President, carried a state, it was in blue.
NBC continued its color scheme blue for Republicans until ABC used yellow for Republicans and blue for Democrats inthen red for Republicans and blue for Democrats in and Inwhen John Anderson ran a relatively high-profile campaign as an independent candidate, at least one network provisionally indicated that they would use yellow if he were to win a state.
Similarly, at least one network would have used yellow to indicate a state won by Ross Perot in andthough neither of them did claim any states in any of these years. In the days following the election, whose outcome was unclear for some time after election day, major media outlets began conforming to the same color scheme because the electoral map was continually in view, and conformity made for easy and instant viewer comprehension.
On Election Night that year, there was no coordinated effort to code Democratic states blue and Republican states red; the association gradually emerged. Partly as a result of this eventual and near-universal color-coding, the terms "red states" and "blue states" entered popular use in the weeks following the presidential election.
After the results were final, journalists stuck with the color scheme, as The Atlantic 's December cover story by David Brooks entitled, "One Nation, Slightly Divisible", illustrated.
Archie Tse, The New York Times graphics editor who made the choice when the Times published its first color presidential election map inprovided a nonpolitical rationale, explaining that "Both 'Republican' and 'red' start with the letter 'R.
Popular vote data is necessarily aggregated at several levels, such as counties and states, which are then colored to show election results. Maps of this type are called choropleth mapswhich have several well-known problems that can result in interpretation bias. One problem arises when areal units differ in size and significance, as is the case with election maps.
These maps give extra visual weight to larger areal units, whether by county or state. This problem is compounded in that the units are not equally significant. A large county or state in area may have fewer voters than a small one in area, for example. Some maps attempt to account for this by using cartogram methods, but the resulting distortion can make such maps difficult to read.
Election maps often use a two-class color scheme red and bluewhich results in a map that is easy to read but is highly generalized.
Some maps use more classes, such as shades of red and blue to indicate the degree of election victory. These maps provide a more detailed picture, but have various problems associated with classification of data. The cartographer must choose how many classes to use and how to break the data into those classes.
While there are various techniques available, the choice is essentially arbitrary. The look of a map can vary significantly depending on the classification choices. The choices of color and shading likewise affect the map's appearance.
Further, all election maps are subject to the interpretation error known as the ecological fallacy. For example, due to the simultaneous contrast effect, the Bezold effectand other factors, an area shaded light red surrounded by areas shaded dark red will appear even lighter.
Differing shades of red and blue compound this effect. Some election maps, however, have broken this tradition by simply coloring each areal unit with a red-blue mixture linked to voting ratio data—resulting in an "unclassified choropleth map". These "purple maps" are useful for showing the highly mixed nature of voting, but are extremely difficult to interpret in detail.
The lack of clear classes make these purple maps highly prone to the problems of color perception described above. However, there are pros and cons to both classified and unclassified choropleth maps.
Each tend to bring out some patterns while obscuring others.Political Polarization: A Conversation Across the Divide. ABOUT THE CONVERSATION: By all accounts, political polarization is on this rise.
We’ll explore what’s driving political polarization and what citizens can do to step our political system back from the brink. Confirmed Speakers Include. Welcome to DePaul's collaborative teaching and learning resource site.
On this site you will find a range of practical and pedagogical resources, from learning how to access your course roster to discovering professional development programs available to faculty and staff at DePaul.
The Great Divide: Polarization in American Politics. The Great Divide: Polarization in American Politics and how much difference they make to the overall functioning of the political. This research was generously funded by the Knight Foundation. Executive Summary As the discussion surrounding misinformation and polarization takes center stage, one space that has been largely overlooked is the Chinese media sphere within the United States, where questionable content has garnered a loyal following among Chinese-speaking immigrants.
Traditionally, the practice of designating a U.S. state as "red" or "blue" is based on the "winner-take-all" system employed for presidential elections by 48 of the 50 U.S. states and the District of timberdesignmag.comral law in Maine and Nebraska makes it possible for those states to .
In politics, polarization can refer to the divergence of political attitudes to ideological extremes. Almost all discussions of polarization in political science consider polarization in the context of political parties and democratic systems of government. When polarization occurs in a two-party system, like the United States, moderate voices often lose power .